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After emptying and rinsing from the previous batch, mash at 13-17 wt% sugar is pumped to the fermenters. Once 20% full, the inoculum is added to allow growth during the remainder of the filling cycle, which can last 4-6 h. Fermentation temperature is regulated by circulating cooling water through submerged coils, circulating the mash through external heat exchanges, or simply spraying the vessel walls with cool water (adequate for small fermenters only). The feed is generally Ethanol 21 introduced at 25-30 °C, and the temperature allowed to gradually rise as heat is evolved.

In the Melle-Boinot process, yeast cells from the previous fermentation are recovered by centrifugation and up to 80% are recycled. The initial cell density of a batch is thus as high as 80 billion cells 1-1 and very rapid ('boiling') fermentation begins almost immediately. With the long growth phase eliminated, the overall fermentation cycle time is reduced by one-half to two-thirds, increasing volumetric productivity to typically 6 g 1-1 h-1. The Melle-Boinot process was generally developed for and is widely used in sulfite waste liquor fermentation, where the low sugar concentrations require maximum yield and cell recycle achieves much higher cell densities and reduced fermentation time.

The best known are undoubtedly cognac and armagnac. All prestigious products have been created empirically. the reputation of the great wine regions having advanced, and greatly thanks to chemical and biological studies". Therefore, one easily attributes the merits of wines to the quality of nature, and sometimes one questions the role of enology. RIBEREAU-GAYON and PEYNAUD supply a precise answer to this question of their "Traite d' CEnologie" (1960), "A good wine or a great wine may be obtained without the aid of modem enology.

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