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By G.R. Gavalas

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Source: ref. 59). A second area of concern in the entrained flow technique is the secondary reactions suffered by the volatile reaction products during their residence in the furnace. These reactions make the mechanistic interpretation of product distribution somewhat doubtful but are of no great concern in combustion studies where the primary information required is weight loss and perhaps elemental composition of the volatiles. The third experimental aspect of the entrained flow technique that requires careful consideration is the collection and analysis of products.

It is also observed that the 80s yield exceeds the 20s yield up to about 700 0e where they become practically indistinguishable. This indicates that at 700 0 e (perhaps even lower) a pyrolysis time of 20s is sufficient for the attainment of the ultimate yield of tar. The temperature-time behavior of the yield of hydrocarbon gases, also shown in Fig. 9, is considerably different from that of tar. The ultimate yield increases with temperature in the whole range studied. Moreover, the 80s curve considerably exceeds the 20s curve up to about 900 0e indicating the generally higher activation energy of the respective rate determining steps.

C. U. c. c. ~ i 0 f- 20 a u 0; ;: 0 300 500 700 900 1100 Pyrolysis temperature (OC) Fig. 9. Yields of tar and gaseous hydrocarbons vs. temperature at two pyrolysis times for a hva bituminous coal "Lower Kittaning" (source: ref. 70). 3. Char and tar composition; distribution of sulfur and nitrogen. In the previous subsection we presented data on the yields of tar, char and several gaseous compounds. In this subsection we discuss the elemental composition and certain other properties of char and tar with an eye towards their mechanistic significance.

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