Download Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals: Transforming Proteins by Rodney J. Y. Ho PDF

By Rodney J. Y. Ho

Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals: remodeling Proteins and Genes into medicinal drugs defines biotechnology from the point of view of prescription drugs. the 1st part makes a speciality of the method of remodeling a biologic macromolecule right into a healing agent, whereas the second one part presents a quick assessment of every category of macromolecule with appreciate to physiological position and scientific software. extra element can be supplied within the moment part for every FDA authorized, recombinantly derived biopharmaceutical for every classification of macromolecule. the ultimate part seems to be to the long run and the hot advances that would improve our skill to enhance new macromolecules into potent biopharmaceuticals. This final part discusses numerous drug supply options whereas additionally describing gene and mobilephone remedy ideas.

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Sample text

B) Clearance and volume of distribution terms for drugs not administered by IV usually reflect clearance and volume terms divided by bioavailability (i. , CL/F or V/F). 2 Administration Pathways Triptorelin/Trelstar 15–27 L 22 2 Pharmacokinetics of Peptides and Proteins hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), whereas a continuous baseline level will suppress the release of these hormones [10]. To avoid the high peaks from an IV administration of leuprorelin, an LH-RH agonist, a long-acting monthly depot injection of the drug is approved for the treatment of prostate cancer and endometriosis [11].

Additionally, they outline some of the associated challenges and obstacles in the drug development process and illustrate them with examples of approved and experimental drugs. 1. 2 Administration Pathways Peptides and proteins, unlike conventional small-molecule drugs, are generally not therapeutically active upon oral administration [4–6]. The lack of systemic bioavailability is mainly caused by two factors: high gastrointestinal enzyme activity, and low permeability through the gastrointestinal mucosa.

Peyer’s patches cover approximately 25 % of the gastrointestinal mucosal surface area and are characteristically high in phagocytotic activity with limited lysosomal activity. More importantly, protein and peptide delivery through GALT offers the advantage of bypassing hepatic first-pass metabolism [6]. The concept has successfully been demonstrated by oral delivery of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in PLGA microspheres to diabetic mice. Mice treated with the microsphere preparation had indeed a lower glycemic response to oral glucose challenge than mice treated with GLP-1 without encapsulation into microspheres [39].

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