Download Becoming Functional: Steps for Transforming Into a by Joshua Backfield PDF

By Joshua Backfield

When you have an critical (and most likely object-oriented) programming historical past, this hands-on booklet will consultant you thru the alien international of useful programming. writer Joshua Backfield starts slowly by way of displaying you the way to use the main invaluable implementation innovations sooner than taking you extra into functional-style options and practices. In each one bankruptcy, you will examine a useful thought after which use it to refactor the fictitious XXY company's imperative-style legacy code, writing and checking out the sensible code your self. As you move throughout the booklet, you are going to migrate from Java 7 to Groovy and at last to Scala because the desire for greater practical language help progressively raises.

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What if we didn’t actually need to define full classes? Well, that leads right into the next section on anonymous functions. info | 15 Anonymous Functions Anonymous functions are split into two types: lambda functions and closures. Closures are quite similar to lambdas with a very subtle difference, which we’ll discuss later. As you learned in the previous section, functions are made up of four parts: name, param‐ eter list, body, and return. But what if we didn’t need the name of the function?

Because functions are not objects in Java, it does not have the concept of a higher-order function. ” In Example 2-19, we can see that the functions findAll and collect are both higher order because they themselves accept functions. Why are higher-order functions so important? Think about the functions as objects: if we are able to pass functions as objects (without wrapping them in objects), we must have higher-order functions. Otherwise, what would utilize those functions as objects? Conclusion At this point, you should have an idea of how use first-class functions.

These smaller functions can then be pure, allowing for a better understanding of the code’s overall functionality. ” Output Depends on Input If we pass a set of parameters into a pure function, we will always get the same result. The return is solely dependent on the parameter list. Don’t Closures Break Function Purity? If we pass a closure, aren’t we then dependent on the external (closedover) variable? This is an interesting point, so let’s think about clo‐ sures and how they work. Closures work by bringing the closedover variable into the scope of the function.

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