Download Avian Biology. Volume 7 by Donald S. Farner, James R. King and Kenneth C. Parkes (Eds.) PDF

By Donald S. Farner, James R. King and Kenneth C. Parkes (Eds.)

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That the energy expenditures of small chicks are far less than they become later in the development period suggests that chicks initially are not able to utilize fully the feeding capacities of their parents. It is not known whether this is due to limitation by the food processing apparatus, by the nutritional capacity of the diet to support growth, or by tissue level constraints on growth rate (Ricklefs, 1969a, 1979b). Some of these factors will be considered later (Section IX, B). Fat deposition is an important component of the energy budgets of the chicks of many species of birds.

1977). Based on wet weight, grains contain high levels, and marine invertebrates, low levels, of metabolizable energy. The ratio of protein (% dry weight) to metabolizable energy (kcal g _ 1 ) varies from about 1 for tropical fruits, and 3 for grains to between 14 and 22 for animal foods depending on amounts of fat; pure protein has a ratio of 23 (Ricklefs, 1974). Among fruits, which provide the least protein, there is considerable variation which allows for the possibility of diet selection based on protein content.

Thyroidectomized individuals were fat, but skeletal ossification and feather growth were retarded. The liver, adrenal glands, and kidneys, however, were four times larger than those of controls based on percentage of body weight. 1. , 1974) but the manner of effect of thyroid hormone on development is not known. King and King (1973) measured the effects of severe hypothyroidism on development of leg muscles in the fowl after 4 weeks. Muscle mass was 0% (sartorius) and 20% (gastrocnemius) lower than in controls, but DNA levels were reduced 22 and 35%, suggesting a major effect on cell proliferation.

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