Download Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks by Michael Woods PDF

By Michael Woods

Were you aware . . .Ancient cultures measured time effectively with water clocks? An engineer within the first century B.C. designed an odometer to calculate distance traveled? humans computed the 1st values of pi approximately 4 thousand years in the past? Computing expertise is as previous as human society itself. the 1st people on the earth used uncomplicated computing abilities. They counted through carving tally marks in bone. They used physique components and simple instruments to degree. Over the centuries, old peoples realized extra approximately computing. humans within the old heart East used scales to degree items for buying and selling. the traditional Egyptians wrote textbooks together with multiplication and department difficulties. the traditional chinese language constructed an abacus for quick calculations. old Greeks made advances in geometry. What types of instruments and methods did historical mathematicians use? Which in their innovations and discoveries have stood the try out of time? and the way did the ancients set the degree for our personal smooth computing? study extra in old Computing know-how.

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Extra info for Ancient Computing Technology: From Abacuses to Water Clocks (Technology in Ancient Cultures)

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Later, they used sundials in the shape of half circles, like those used in the ancient Middle East. As the Sun moved through the sky, a gnomon cast a shadow on lines spreading out from the center. These early sundials marked twelve hours of daylight year-round. But in Egypt, as in most places, the amount of daylight changes with the seasons. So the length of hours actually varied. With this technology, an hour wasn’t a standardized measure of time. Each hour was longer in the summer and shorter in the winter.

But like the Egyptians, the Incas would have needed computing to keep building projects in order and keep records of workers, supplies, and land. However, most experts believe that the Incas had no writing system. Information probalby was passed through word of mouth. So how did they save information? They used the quipu, a group of knotted cords that served as a complex recording device for numbers. Quipus kept track of people counted in a census, a farmer’s animals, tax records, and more. 56 ANCIENT COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY  Quipus, such as this one, were used by the A quipu had a main Inca to record and store information through a horizontal cord with several system of knots.

Mayan 54 ANCIENT COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY —Luis F. Rodríguez, astronomer, 1985 numbers show the Long Count date on Stela 29, a stone monument found in the ancient city of Tikal, Guatemala. d. 292. 15—meaning 1,243,615 days since the Mayan creation. T h e Azt e c C a l e n d a r Several hundred years after the Mayan civilization had dwindled, the Aztec Empire became a powerful force in Mexico and Central America. Between the early 1300s and 1500s, this group ruled land from central Mexico to Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

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