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By Saint Basil of Caesarea

Basil of Caesarea is taken into account one of many architects of the Pro-Nicene Trinitarian doctrine followed on the Council of Constantinople in 381, which japanese and western Christians to today profess as "orthodox." Nowhere is his Trinitarian theology extra truly expressed than in his first significant doctrinal paintings, opposed to Eunomius, complete in 364 or 365 CE. Responding to Eunomius, whose Apology gave renewed impetus to a convention of starkly subordinationist Trinitarian theology that might live on for many years, Basil's opposed to Eunomius displays the serious controversy raging at the moment between Christians around the Mediterranean international over who God is. during this treatise, Basil makes an attempt to articulate a theology either one of God's unitary essence and of the distinct gains that represent the daddy, Son, and Holy Spirit--a contrast that a few hail because the cornerstone of "Cappadocian" theology. In opposed to Eunomius, we see the conflict no longer easily of 2 dogmatic positions at the doctrine of the Trinity, yet of 2 essentially hostile theological tools. Basil's treatise is as a lot approximately how theology needs to be performed and what people can and can't find out about God because it is ready the exposition of Trinitarian doctrine. therefore opposed to Eunomius marks a turning aspect within the Trinitarian debates of the fourth century, for the 1st time addressing the methodological and epistemological alterations that gave upward push to theological alterations. Amidst the polemical vitriol of opposed to Eunomius is a decision to epistemological humility at the a part of the theologian, a choice to acknowledge the constraints of even the easiest theology. whereas Basil subtle his theology during the process his occupation, opposed to Eunomius continues to be a testomony to his early theological improvement and a privileged window into the Trinitarian controversies of the mid-fourth century.

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It is not in scripture, and so it is better to stick with terms like 'Father' and 'Son,' which have biblical pedigree and connote a mutual relation. 177 Moreover, if this is the definition of 'God,' then obviously the only-begotten Son is not God, at least not in the same way the Unbegotten is. But, importantly, Basil does not deny INTRODUCTION 49 that God is unbegotten. For him, that would be like denying that the sun is the brightest heavenly body at high noon. ' This term is merely what we say when, reflecting on the life of God and casting our minds backwards, so to speak, we note that this life has no beginning.

13;Jo. 153-57. 251. Eun. 7· 'Light':jo. 267. 133-70. 'Bread': ]0. 99-101. 'Vine':Jo. 130-31, 1. 20 5-8 . 253. Eun. 12; Prine. 9- 10 . 25 2 . See Eun. 29· 254· Eun. 14-15;JO. 8-1 I. 255. Eun. 15;Jo. 21-22. 25 6 . Eun. 19; Fragmentsfrom the Commentary On the Epistle to the Ephesians 2. 258. E. 21-23. s. 59 (2008): 183-g0. 259. Basil makes the same error in Spir. ' 260. Hildebrand, The Trinitarian Theology of Basil of Caesarea (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, , 2007), 80 n.

197 To the contrary, the Spirit, just like the Father and the Son, possesses holiness by nature, and not by participation and good deeds, as created, angelic powers possess holiness. 198 For Basil, the Holy Spirit's goodness is clearly not a matter of acquiring a quality from some external source; goodness is simply who the 190. Ayres 220. See also Behr 291, and Christopher A. Beeley. ianzus on the. Trinity and the Knowledge of God (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008),296. 193· Eun. 3. 19+ Eun.

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