Download Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates by Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan PDF

By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan

This ebook had its genesis in a symposium on fuel hydrates provided on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yankee Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers provided in 4 classes over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy issues now not addressed throughout the symposium. gasoline hydrates are a different category of chemicals the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with out bonding chemically, inside of an open sturdy lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). these kind of configurations are often called clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of an acceptable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped through the host fabric. Commonexamples of gasoline hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At general strain and temperature, methane hydrate comprises via quantity one hundred eighty instances as a lot methane as hydrate. the us Geological Survey (USGS) has expected that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all other kinds of fossil fuels mixed. in reality, methane hydrates may supply a fresh resource of strength for numerous centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first found within the early 1800s while Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combinations.

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For the induction and growth periods, all hydrate particles are assumed to migrate to the gas-liquid interface rapidly and grow there (Figure 3b). 1. Gas Phase Equations Neglecting the water vapor pressure, the cumulative gas consumption can be expressed as the difference between the initial and instantaneous moles of methane in the gas phase: During the dissolution time period, this gas consumption is assumed to be going into the liquid phase. The discussion below will present equations defining how the consumption is handled for other time periods.

Is the partition function of indefinite number of guest molecules inside one cage 23 Statistical Thermodynamic Model is the absolute activity function of k guest molecules inside cage and the canonical partition Here is the kinetic energy and is the potential energy of k guest molecules in the cage, is phase-space volume element (h is the Planck constant). By the definition of the grand canonical ensemble the probability to find k particles in one cage is equal to Representing as products of kinetic and configuration partition functions we have Then, equating as usual, activities of the guest in the clathrate and gas phase, when (p is the guest gas pressure), we obtain where are the configuration integrals Comparing (7) with (2) we obtain the microscopic statistical expression for Langmuir’s constants for general case of arbitrary cage filling.

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