By Charles Emmerson
This present day, 1913 is necessarily considered during the lens of 1914: because the final 12 months earlier than a conflict that will shatter the worldwide financial order and tear Europe aside, undermining its international pre-eminence. Our views narrowed through hindsight, the realm of that 12 months is decreased to its such a lot frivolous featureslast summers in grand aristocratic residencesor its so much damaging ones: the unresolved rivalries of the good eu powers, the terror of revolution, violence within the Balkans.
In this illuminating heritage, Charles Emmerson liberates the area of 1913 from this prelude to war” narrative, and explores it because it used to be, in all its richness and complexity. touring from Europe’s capitals, then on the peak in their worldwide achieve, to the rising metropolises of Canada and the U.S., the imperial towns of Asia and Africa, and the boomtowns of Australia and South the USA, he offers a wide ranging view of a global crackling with chances, its destiny nonetheless unsure, its outlook nonetheless open.
The international in 1913 was once extra sleek than we take note, extra just like our personal occasions than we predict, extra globalized than ever earlier than. The most reliable underpinned international flows of products and cash, whereas mass migration reshaped the world’s human geography. Steamships and sub-sea cables encircled the earth, besides new applied sciences and new rules. Ford’s first meeting line cranked to lifestyles in 1913 in Detroit. The Woolworth construction went up in long island. whereas Mexico was once in the course of bloody revolution, Winnipeg and Buenos Aires boomed. An period of petro-geopolitics opened in Iran. China looked to be awaking from its imperial shut eye. Paris celebrated itself because the urban of lightBerlin because the urban of electricity.
Full of interesting characters, tales, and insights, 1913: looking for the realm sooner than the good War brings a misplaced global vividly again to existence, with provocative implications for a way we comprehend our earlier and the way we predict approximately our destiny.
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Additional info for 1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War
As a rule, only one grammarian 89 See Cribiore 1996a: no. 160. Many exercises, in fact, display the signature of the student who wrote them. On names of students appearing in exercises, see Cribiore 1996a: Appendix 2. 91 On the title Flavius, see below, p. 61. 92 See Fournet 1999: 688–90, and passim. A Greek-Coptic glossary also addressed learners. 93 Cf. below, p. 106. 90 40 MODELS OF SCHOOLING could be found in these centers at a time: only Alexandria, and Hermopolis in the ﬁfth century, where two grammarians are known, are the exceptions.
Crum and G. Steindorff, Koptische Rechtsurkunden des achten Jahrhunderts aus Djeme (Theben) (Leipzig, 1971), nos. 78–103. 43 See P. Riche´, Education and Culture in the Barbarian West, trans. J. J. , 1976), 109–22. 44 I am currently working on the Coptic exercises belonging to Columbia University. On the Greek exercises, see Cribiore 1996a: nos. 66, 67, 122, 123, 168, 225, 226, 227, and 319. : no. 319. Epiph. I, pp. 42–43 and note 1. 47 See C. Bachatly, Le monaste`re de Phoebammon dans la The´baı¨de, vol.
42 Even though in the small monasteries around Thebes schools were not organized on the grand scale of the Western monastic centers,43 education left deﬁnite traces. 44 While there are no speciﬁc indications of the ﬁnding-places of the latter, the Greek exercises were mostly discovered in cells outside of the boundary walls. 46 Not far from the monastery of Epiphanius was the monastery of St. Phoebammon, which was built on the ruins of a pharaonic temple. 47 It is suggestive 41 Cf. below, Chapter 5.